That Can Out-Reproduce White Conservatives
Percentage of California Population, ages 17 and under, in 2005
The more that males exert dominance over females, the greater the total
offspring produced. Males, on average, desire more children than females,
and if they are able to dominate their social groups--birth rates increase
greater female investment in reproduction has led them down a slightly
different evolutionary pathway than their male counterparts. Females
are more likely than males to select for offspring quality as opposed
social groups balance out the average dominance levels of the two genders,
birth rates start to decline, as do the percentage of males that reproduce.
A male-dominated society is a reproductive one, while gender equality
eliminates male genes at a faster pace.
is this evolutionary game of reproduction that males and females are
playing? This is seen in the interesting relationship between warfare
and rape. Warfare and rape are almost uniquely male behaviors, and curiously
symbiotic. Even in modern warfare, the incidence of rape by soldiers
is at its highest after battles in which the local males have been killed
or chased away--an indicator of a strong link between male violence
and reproductive advantage.
males tend toward violence in the elimination of undesirable genes and
the acquisition of reproductive advantage, females have a longer and
less deadly strategy. They can simply let less desirable genes die off
without reproducing with them. Females optimize sexual selection and
reproductive output during times of peace. Warfare compromises female
sexual selection and improves male sexual selection, at least for the
males that are victorious.
surprisingly, females are more likely to oppose warfare across every
political affiliation. Females are also more likely to support abortion,
which provides them a substantial advantage in sexual selection. Shoplifting
and infanticide are the only two crimes that females commit at an equal
or higher rate than males.
humans in modern day nation-states play a much safer game of reproductive
advantage--one played out within the confines of a modern economy. Economics
is now the primary yardstick for male reproductive fitness. For males,
and to a lesser extent females, the reproductive advantages of wealth
are substantial, and warfare, once a mainstay for male reproductive
advantage, has been subordinated to the demands of economic production.
People Try to Out-Reproduce Each Other?
that work or live together have long been known to synchronize their
menstrual cycles, and it appears that mutual exposure to each other's
pheromones drives this phenomenon. The reproductive synchronicity of
females is found in numerous species, and for good reason, as it addresses
a variety of problems associated with giving birth, such as predation
and seasonal variations in food and water availability.
coordinated and often competitive reproductive behavior of so many gregarious
species raises a number of questions. Do humans also engage in reproductive
competition? Do they consciously or unconsciously attempt to obtain
reproductive advantage against others? Do they also form into ethnic
or religious groups for the sake of reproductive advantage?
answer to all these questions is yes. Not only do people consciously
and unconsciously compete reproductively, but ethnic and religious groups
also engage in organized reproductive competition--the most infamous
being the German racial subsidy programs of the 1930s and 40s.
As would be expected, the current list of governmental subsidies for
fertility are predominately Caucasian, and include France, Italy, Spain,
Poland, Russia, Israel, and Sweden. However, subsidies have not been
very successful in stimulating Caucasian fertility. Saudi Arabia, a
country that needed no help with reproduction, has nonetheless sponsored
an aggressive subsidy campaign to increase reproductive rates, and maintains
some of the highest birth rates in the world.
the Hispanics Trying to Out-Reproduce the Caucasians?
at the individual level, reproductive competition has a distinctly local
flavor. Reproductive competition is more likely to occur among siblings
than any other relationship. The odd mixture of sibling reproductive
competition and sibling altruism has some very good evolutionary reasons.
virtually all human societies, reproduction is supported by the extended
family, including grandparents, parents, siblings, cousins, aunts and
uncles. Getting the jump on reproduction among siblings is a distinct
advantage, especially when resources are scarce.
Hispanic version of reproduction is much less organized around competition
than the Caucasian version, at least ethnically. Because of the high
percentage of Hispanic Catholics, reproductive competition at the group
level is organized religiously, via a long history of institutionalized
Catholic reproductive stimulants.
higher Hispanic birth rates are only partially the result of reproductive
competition at the religious group level. Like the Asians, the Hispanic
version of inclusive fitness and altruism towards close
kin is more expansive than the Caucasian version, which is less likely
to focus altruistic behaviors based on kinship ties (see the Population
Biology of California).
the Hispanics More Altruistic Towards Close Kin?
on some limited evidence we've gathered, the Hispanic model of inclusive
fitness seems to fall in between the Asian and Caucasian models--at
least for females. That is, their altruism is more likely to be focused
towards close kin than the Caucasian model, but less so than the Asian
In one of our earlier surveys, we found that Asian females were highest
in their self-rating of parental closeness, while the Caucasian females
ranked last. The Hispanic females fell in between these two races. Among
males, the patterns by race were more ambiguous, and showed no distinct
advantage for any race. Males, on average, report lower rates of parental
closeness than females. This is to be expected, due to the greater female
burden of reproduction.
Reproductive competition is much more likely to be organized within
one's own private world of inclusive fitness and altruism
than across racial or religious lines. Ironically, people are more likely
to reproductively compete within the same group of individuals that
they perform altruistic behaviors for, and this seems to be for a very
good evolutionary reason, as reproduction is supported within that same
group of individuals.
are all the Illegal Aliens Coming From?
reproductive model of the illegal immigrants is primarily a rural one,
owing to the economic displacement of large numbers of Mexican peasant
farmers by large agribusiness. While NAFTA provided numerous benefits
for large agribusiness and industry in Mexico, it devastated peasant
agriculture and the very large segment of highly reproductive farmers
populations are more reproductive than urban ones, and the illegal immigrants
were from one of the most reproductive sectors in Mexico. To make matters
worse for the United States, the female illegal immigrants were typically
in their early reproductive years. Further, the illegal immigrants experience
a "bump" in their income in America, as they were often making
a paltry $4 per day in Mexico. Immigrant reproduction was stimulated
even with the substandard American wages.
Hispanic immigrants would fill five primary segments in the Californian
and Texan economies: rural farm workers, urban factory workers, suburban
domestic workers, construction workers, and unskilled service workers.
Thus, Hispanic illegal immigration filled the low-wage niches of the
Californian and Texan economies, competing primarily with low-wage Caucasians
and Blacks, and permeated communities of every size: urban, rural, and
Immigration and Inclusive Fitness
we discussed in last month's edition, the extended family structure
and higher inclusive fitness model of the Asians allowed them
to reproduce effectively in high population densities, while the space-hungry
model of Caucasian reproduction, centered around the nuclear family,
was disrupted. Populations that can maintain reproduction in high population
densities will displace populations that cannot.
the end of the Mexican War in 1848, the numbers of Mexicans living in
what is now the American Southwest were isolated to a few pockets of
colonists, as the Spanish-speaking population numbered only about 10,000.
Immigration didn't start drawing significant numbers until the railroad
construction of the 1870s. Revolution in Mexico in the first quarter
of the 20th century drove emigration from the west-central Mexican states
and into the southern United States.
these same Mexican states are driving a disproportionate share of the
emigration, indicating the development of immigration networks
centered on extended families. This is evidence that higher inclusive
fitness towards kin drives higher rates of immigration, both legal
of the more disturbing trends for the Conservatives are the voting patterns
of the Asian-Americans. Many Conservatives believed that once second-generation
Asians became economically vested, they would join the ranks of conservatism.
of the strong influence of both genetics and environment on political
behavior, this has not happened. In fact, the Asian-American voting
patterns have been accelerating their support for liberal candidates,
at least in the last four U.S. presidential elections.
we discussed last
month, the Chinese seem to be maintaining the highest inclusive
fitness model of all the races, that is, they are more likely to suppress
their own genetic presence in the next generation in favor of their
close kin. How does this translate into political behavior?
self-suppression of individual fitness has found its way into their
social behavior on a greater scale. The enigmatic Chinese, still clinging
to many of the ideals of communism while fully engaged in capitalistic
behavior, actually make perfect sense when viewed from the perspective
of evolutionary psychology.
of individual fitness is indeed the breeding ground of "communism",
that is, behaviors that focus altruism on others. Anyone living in a
family structure is effectively practicing communism, as resources are
pooled and distributed based on need among the family members. As genetic
distance grows, these communistic behaviors break down.
communistic behaviors towards close kin are to be channeled by a nation-state,
they usually take the form of a stable and "paternal" leadership,
that is, leadership that takes the appearance of a family patriarch.
This explains the tendency for communistic regimes to be personified
on a particular individual, such as Fidel Castro or Kim Jong-il of North
Korea. These communistic states are also notable by transfers of power
to other family members. It appears that rapid non-family leadership
transfers tend to make these communistic states unstable.
what about the Hispanics? What are their political and religious tendencies?
We do not get a lot of Hispanics to respond to our surveys, so our data
is not very reliable. But there are some very good sources of Hispanic
voting trends, most notable being the Pew
estimates place the ratio of Hispanic Democrats between two and three
times that of Hispanic Republicans. There also appears to be a trend
towards increasing Democratic support among the Hispanics, which is
similar to the Asian trend.
Hispanic liberalism is not exactly the same as Caucasian liberalism.
Let's ignore the Hispanic Conservatives and Moderates for the moment,
and focus strictly on the Liberals. Based on our limited data, the Hispanic
Liberals are more inclined towards religiosity and spirituality than
the Caucasian Liberals.
makes them socially more conservative on such things as gay marriage,
however, it must be noted that gay marriage is not as big an issue among
the religious Hispanics as it is with the religious Caucasians. The
enhanced religiosity of these Hispanic Liberals also correlates with
higher reproductive rates.
Hispanic Liberals are also more inclined to believe that the world is
in a struggle between good and evil, another indicator of higher religiosity.
Based on our data, the Hispanic Liberals are more negative about the
War in Iraq than the Caucasian Liberals, if that is possible.
was also noted by Pew, however Pew did not break out its data by Conservative
and Liberal segments of the Hispanic population. Compared to the Caucasian
Liberals, the Hispanic Liberals are more likely to be against intervention
in Iran, more likely to be against gun ownership, and more likely to
support job quotas.
overall, there are more similarities between Hispanic and Caucasian
Liberalism than differences, and for the most part, they mirror each
other's attitudes quite well.
Slow Ascent of the Hispanic Electorate
While the white
Conservatives in America were well on their way to a thorough reproductive
trouncing of the white Liberals, they were torn between the economic
benefits of cheap Hispanic labor and the socio-political impact of a
large immigrant underclass. In a sense, the whites in the United States
were engaging in a political budget deficit--sacrificing future political
power for cheap labor today.
The American Hispanics
have yet to exert their full influence on the political system. Although
the Hispanics accounted for about half of the population growth in America
from 2002 to 2006, they only accounted for 20% of the growth in new
eligible voters. During the same time, the whites contributed to 24%
of the population growth, but 47% of the eligible new voters.
electoral impact of Hispanic population growth is due in part to the
immigrant nature of this growth, as about one-third are non-citizens.
The Hispanic population is younger, on average, than the Caucasians,
which further delays the electoral impact of their growth. The median
age of the American Hispanics is about 25.8 years, almost 10 years younger
than the American Whites.
levels are lower among the Hispanics, which further reduces their electoral
impact. As second and third generation Hispanic immigrants make their
way through the American educational system, their electoral influence
will increase proportionately.
In about 15 years,
the Hispanic population of California is projected to exceed the Caucasian
population. In about 20 years, the Hispanic population of Texas will
exceed its Caucasian population.
California and Texas contain 89 of the 270 electoral votes necessary
to elect a president.
already fallen under the Hispanic and Asian electoral influence, who
have jumped in to assist the large numbers of Caucasian Liberals in
the northern part of the state. From 1968 through 1988, a predominately
Caucasian California had given its electoral votes to Republican presidential
candidates. But from 1992 on, California had voted for Democratic presidential
candidates, and is now solidified as a "blue" state in national
Texas has fewer
Caucasian Liberals, and if Texas is to become solidified as a "blue"
state, as unbelievable as that now sounds, it will likely occur after
2030. But will the Hispanics still be predominately liberal in 2030?
This brings us
to the interesting relationship between skin color and serotonin. As
we have mentioned before, the serotonergic system seems to exert a greater
influence on Liberal behavior and cognitive styles than Conservative,
which are more influenced by the dopaminergic system.
affiliative social behavior in high population densities, an attribute
more likely to be found in Liberals. But serotonin also increases levels
of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, which darkens the skin. Asians
and Hispanics maintain higher population densities, on average, than
Caucasians. Currently, the last vestiges of communism are being maintained
by the Asians and Hispanics.
The political influence
of darker skin is highly speculative, and while the high levels of Caucasian
Liberalism in the sunlight-deprived regions of the world cast doubt
on this relationship--this paradox actually can be resolved by the diminished
influence of the dopaminergic system on these sunlight-deprived Caucasians.
Will Asians and
Hispanics be eternally more liberal than the Caucasians in the sun-drenched
regions of the world? If this is true, then the long-term future of
the United States, beginning sometime after 2030, will be a more liberal
one. This would be a surprising turn of events for an America in a full
sprint towards conservatism in the last few decades of the 20th century.